Posts in Category: english

The Use of Cocaine Ages the Human Brain

Did you know that …..
according to a recent study the use of cocaine ages the human brain ?

So says an investigation conducted by Karen Ersche entitled “Cocaine dependence: a fast-track for brain aging?“. This study has been published in the latest issue of the journal Molecular Psychiatry.

The researchers found that psychological and physiological changes, such as cognitive decline and brain atrophy, typicals of the aged are seen in middle-aged people addicted to cocaine.

Karen Ersche and colleagues worked with a sample of 120 cocaine users. They found that this group of people had lost more brain volume than the control group of non-users of cocaine.


The conclusion was that chronic exposure to cocaine accelerates the aging brain.
They also claim that cocaine users have a mortality rate eight times higher than healthy individuals.


(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)


human brain



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Hermine Hug-Hellmuth Biography

Topic: Hermine Hug-Hellmuth Biography

Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth (1871-1924), actually her name was von Hug Hugenstein, was a pioneer in child psychoanalytic therapy. She was the daughter of a military in good standing. Hermine never married and died tragically murdered by her nephew Rolf. That nephew of 18 years was the natural son of his sister Antoine, who had been at her charge after the death of her sister.

Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth, following the footsteps of her sister, Antoine, became a children teacher. Later she entered the University of Vienna, graduating and obtaining a doctorate in Sciences Physics. In 1909 he defended his doctoral thesis about the physical and chemical properties of radioactive substances. Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth was one of the first Viennese women in college.

She became interested in the theories of Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis when  she started her own psychoanalysis with the analyst Isidor Sadger.

In 1910 Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth published in the Zentralblatt für Psychoanalyse her first article entitled “The Analysis of a Dream of a 5-Year Old Boy“. Later she published another interesting article entitled “The Nature of the Child’s Soul (Or Psyche” (1913), and in 1919 “A study of the mental life of the child“.

Hermine became a member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society in 1913, and was closely involved in its journal “Imago” and in the “International Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse “.

In 1920 Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth participates at the Congress of Psychoanalysis in The Hague where she has a paper entitled “On the Technique of the Analysis of Children“.

Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth published the book “The Analysis of a Dream of a 5-Year Old Boy” in 1912, when Anna Freud was 18 and Melanie Klein began to be interested in the studies of Freud. That’s why she is considered the pioneer in the psychoanalytic treatment of children and the use of the game (play therapy) to understand the child’s mind. Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth was really the first to adapt psychoanalytic technique at the age of the child. She said: “The purpose of analysis, both adults and children, is the same: restoring mental health.”

At first it was thought that psychoanalysis could only be carried out after 17 or 18, but Hug-Hellmuth adapted psychoanalysis to the child’s age.

It was thought that Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth wrote a book called “A Young Girl’s Diary“, published anonymously in 1919. The book was a great success and several editions were sold in no time. The book is written in first person by a young woman named Rita who speaks, among other things, about “awakening sexuality”. People as influential as Lou Andreas-Salome or the writer Stefan Zweig spoke very highly of that book.

Hermine Hug-Hellmuth stayed true to psychoanalytic orthodoxy, and was among the favorite disciples of Freud.


(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)


Hermine Hug-Hellmuth



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Important development events in children (English)

The most important development events in children are:

  1. One and a half year old : Can climb stairs holding on to an adult, speaks about ten words, and partially feeds himself.
  2. Two years old : Runs, can turn books pages, makes two o three words sentences, and can put on simple clothing.
  3. Three years old : Rides a tricycle, counts to ten, and questions constantly.
  4. Four years old : Throws a ball over, knows at least one color, and can washes his hand by himself.
  5. Five years old : Can catche a bounced ball, copies a triangle, and dresses and undresses without help.


(Edited by Dra. Moya Guirao)


Family Silhouetted

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Mentally Retarded Individuals and Degrees of Disability

Topic : Mentally Retarded Individuals and Degrees of Disability  

Mentally retarded individuals need special care from infancy to old age. The psychologist can assist the parents to understand developmental sequences.

The degree of disability may go from mild level to profound level.

Profound level is characterized by :

minimal capacity for functioning in sensorio-motor areas,
delays in all areas of development,
basic emotional responses,
primitive speech,
incapable of self maintenance.

Mild level is characterized by:

often not notice as retarded by casual observer,
slowe walk,
can feed self,
can acquire practical skills,
can acquire useful reading and arithmetic,
can usually achieve social skills,
may need occasional guidance and support when under social or economic stress.

(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

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Classification of Mental Deficiency

Did you know that…..

In 1959 The American Association on Mental Deficiency proposed some modifications in the classification of the degree of mental retardation ?

The Association also proposed new names, that is, changed the old terms designating the different degrees of intellectual retardation with new ones.
This new classification of mental deficiency was based on two dimensions, the measure of intelligence and impaired adaptive behavior.

The former classification classified the mental deficiency in terms of “moron“, “imbecile” and “idiot“.
The new one sorted out the mental retardation as “mild”, “moderate“, “serious” and “deep “.
These four terms covering basically the same range as above.

In the new classification, the mental retardation mild is two standard deviations below of the normal intelligence, measured by an intelligence test.


(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

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Development events in infants

The most important development events in infants are:

  1. Six weeks: The infant regards objects in the line of vision, begins to smile, and has head lag when pulled to a sitting position.
  2. Three months: His head is steady on sitting, and objects are grasped when placed in his hand.
  3. Six months: Sits with support, transfer and object from hand to hand, and rolls over.
  4. Nine months: Pulls himself to a standing position, crawls, waves “bye, bye”, and  says “”mama” and “dada”.
  5. One year:  The infant walks with his hand held and speaks several words.


(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

Baby icons

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Cancer and Risk of Suicide

Did you know that …..
according to a recent Swedish study the diagnosis of cancer increases the likelihood of suicide or die from cardiovascular causes ?

The researchers studied a sample of 6,073,240 Swedes between 1991 and 2006.
The conclusion of the investigation was that the risk of suicide in the first week after the cancer diagnosis was 12.6, representing an incidence rate of 2.50 / 1,000 per person-year. This rate decreased after the year of diagnosis, and it was 0.60 / 1,000 per person-year.

Regarding the risk of cardiovascular death after diagnosis, it was 5.6 during the first week, with the incidence rate of 116.80 / 1,000 person-years. The rate of death from cardiovascular problems after the year of diagnosis was 65.81 / 1,000 person-years.


As shown, the risk of death or suicide decreased during the first year after diagnosis, but the investigators found that the risk was greatest for cancers with poor prognosis.

This research entitled “Suicide and Cardiovascular Death after a Cancer Diagnosis“, was conducted by Dr. Fang Fang and colleagues, and has been published recently in The New England Journal of Medicine.


The mere fact of being diagnosed with cancer is experienced by people as a traumatic experience.
Psychotherapy conducted by psychologists or physicians experienced in cancer psychotherapy is an important tool in the treatment of people with cancer.


(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)


cancer cells



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Amphetamines in Europe

Did you know that…..

trends are changing in the trafficking of synthetic drugs in Europe ?

According to Europol and EMCDDA (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug), the Europeans have become the number one of the world in the production and consumption of amphetamines. The report of these agencies said that 12.5 millions of people in Europe used amphetamines in the last year.

Amphetamines are the second most used drug in Europe after cocaine. Other consumed drugs are heroin, cocaine and cannabis.

The report states also that the consumption is rising in many countries in the North and East of Europe: Poland, Lithuania, Bulgaria, etc.



(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)


Flags of Europe

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