Posts in Category: english

Important development events in children (English)

The most important development events in children are:

  1. One and a half year old : Can climb stairs holding on to an adult, speaks about ten words, and partially feeds himself.
  2. Two years old : Runs, can turn books pages, makes two o three words sentences, and can put on simple clothing.
  3. Three years old : Rides a tricycle, counts to ten, and questions constantly.
  4. Four years old : Throws a ball over, knows at least one color, and can washes his hand by himself.
  5. Five years old : Can catche a bounced ball, copies a triangle, and dresses and undresses without help.


(Edited by Dra. Moya Guirao)


Family Silhouetted

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Mentally Retarded Individuals and Degrees of Disability

Topic : Mentally Retarded Individuals and Degrees of Disability  

Mentally retarded individuals need special care from infancy to old age. The psychologist can assist the parents to understand developmental sequences.

The degree of disability may go from mild level to profound level.

Profound level is characterized by :

minimal capacity for functioning in sensorio-motor areas,
delays in all areas of development,
basic emotional responses,
primitive speech,
incapable of self maintenance.

Mild level is characterized by:

often not notice as retarded by casual observer,
slowe walk,
can feed self,
can acquire practical skills,
can acquire useful reading and arithmetic,
can usually achieve social skills,
may need occasional guidance and support when under social or economic stress.

(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

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Classification of Mental Deficiency

Did you know that…..

In 1959 The American Association on Mental Deficiency proposed some modifications in the classification of the degree of mental retardation ?

The Association also proposed new names, that is, changed the old terms designating the different degrees of intellectual retardation with new ones.
This new classification of mental deficiency was based on two dimensions, the measure of intelligence and impaired adaptive behavior.

The former classification classified the mental deficiency in terms of “moron“, “imbecile” and “idiot“.
The new one sorted out the mental retardation as “mild”, “moderate“, “serious” and “deep “.
These four terms covering basically the same range as above.

In the new classification, the mental retardation mild is two standard deviations below of the normal intelligence, measured by an intelligence test.


(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

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Development events in infants

The most important development events in infants are:

  1. Six weeks: The infant regards objects in the line of vision, begins to smile, and has head lag when pulled to a sitting position.
  2. Three months: His head is steady on sitting, and objects are grasped when placed in his hand.
  3. Six months: Sits with support, transfer and object from hand to hand, and rolls over.
  4. Nine months: Pulls himself to a standing position, crawls, waves “bye, bye”, and  says “”mama” and “dada”.
  5. One year:  The infant walks with his hand held and speaks several words.


(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

Baby icons

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Cancer and Risk of Suicide

Did you know that …..
according to a recent Swedish study the diagnosis of cancer increases the likelihood of suicide or die from cardiovascular causes ?

The researchers studied a sample of 6,073,240 Swedes between 1991 and 2006.
The conclusion of the investigation was that the risk of suicide in the first week after the cancer diagnosis was 12.6, representing an incidence rate of 2.50 / 1,000 per person-year. This rate decreased after the year of diagnosis, and it was 0.60 / 1,000 per person-year.

Regarding the risk of cardiovascular death after diagnosis, it was 5.6 during the first week, with the incidence rate of 116.80 / 1,000 person-years. The rate of death from cardiovascular problems after the year of diagnosis was 65.81 / 1,000 person-years.


As shown, the risk of death or suicide decreased during the first year after diagnosis, but the investigators found that the risk was greatest for cancers with poor prognosis.

This research entitled “Suicide and Cardiovascular Death after a Cancer Diagnosis“, was conducted by Dr. Fang Fang and colleagues, and has been published recently in The New England Journal of Medicine.


The mere fact of being diagnosed with cancer is experienced by people as a traumatic experience.
Psychotherapy conducted by psychologists or physicians experienced in cancer psychotherapy is an important tool in the treatment of people with cancer.


(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)


cancer cells



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Amphetamines in Europe

Did you know that…..

trends are changing in the trafficking of synthetic drugs in Europe ?

According to Europol and EMCDDA (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug), the Europeans have become the number one of the world in the production and consumption of amphetamines. The report of these agencies said that 12.5 millions of people in Europe used amphetamines in the last year.

Amphetamines are the second most used drug in Europe after cocaine. Other consumed drugs are heroin, cocaine and cannabis.

The report states also that the consumption is rising in many countries in the North and East of Europe: Poland, Lithuania, Bulgaria, etc.



(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)


Flags of Europe

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The highest and the lowest rates of suicide

Did you know that…..

suicide is one of the most significant cause of death in many countries ?

The World Health Organization defines suicide as an act deliberately initiated and performed by a person in the full knowledge or expectation of its outcome.

The lowest rates of suicide are in the Mediterranean countries, Greece, Spain, Italy, and Israel.
Korea has the highest rates of suicide. Other countries with high rates of suicide are Russia, Hungary and Japan.

Intentional killing of oneself has decreased in Estonia, Luxembourg and Austria, but it has risen in Korea, Chile, Japan, Mexico and Portugal.
Suicides are greater in elderly people and young people (under 25) than in the rest of people.

Mortality rates are based on the numbers of deaths registered in a country during a year and divided by the number of its habitants.



(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)


The earth

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Continuous Sleep Treatment

Did you know that….
sleep is induced for approximately 20 hours each day in the Continuous Sleep Treatment ?

The  period of sleep can be from 3 to 60 days. The patient must sleep in a quiet and darkened room, and he is awake at certain fixed times to feed himself and attend to his elimination.

The depth of sleep varies with the type of method, from a profound sleep to a continuous somnolence called “twilight sleep”.

Barbiturates (Amytal) and Phenotiazine derivatives are the drugs used in this kind of treatment.
The procedure is not without risk. Some complications are : cardiovascular collapse, bronchopneumonia, acute renal insufficiency, respiratory depression, delirious episodes, and convulsions at the termination of treatment.



(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)


mujer durmiendo

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