Posts in Category: english

Psychotherapy (English)

Psychotherapy aimed at discovering the unconscious conflicts is an ideal treatment for anxiety, as well as other psychological disorders. Besides the above, psychotherapy can also lead to greater self-knowledge.

We think that drugs should be used along with psychotherapy, not as a substitute for appropriate psychotherapy. Since Benzodiazepines are only symptomatic treatment, care must be taken to avoid high doses and prolonged use, which can lead to dependence.



(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)



dibujo de Freud

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Did you know that…..

Behaviorism means a mechanistic and biological approach of psychology, animal and human  ?

Behaviorism thinks that psychology should be as objective as physical science. Behaviorism says that the behavior is the only aspect of human psychology that can be measured.  Behaviorism affirms the emotions, the thoughts, and other internal topics of human mind are subjectives, and they are impossible to measure.

Behaviorism and other stimulus-response theories represent the mathematical and physical science applied to psychology.



(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

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Narcotics Drugs

Narcotic drugs are classified into two groups.

1 .- Opium and its derivatives, Morphine, Narcotine, Papaverine, and Codeine.

2 .- Their synthetic equivalents, such as Methadone.

Originally it was thought that each of these drugs was not addictive. Subsequently it was shown that all narcotics cause addiction.



(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)




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Shock Therapies in Psychiatry

Did you know that…..

Shock Therapies were introduced in Psychiatry in the last century ?

Most mental hospitals used Shock Therapies throughout the twentieth century.

There were three main types of Shock Therapies,

  • Hypoglycemic shock therapy,
  • Cardiazol shock,
  • Electric convulsions shock.

The Electric shock therapy was the most popular shock therapy.

The application of the shock therapy was widely accepted because there was no a more rational and effective treatment.

Shock Therapies also mean lower health care costs for most countries, but the scientific validity and the effects of shocks has been questioned.


(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

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Origin of Heroin

Did you know that…..
Heroin was isolated from opium in 1898 ?

Heroin was first isolated from opium as a non-addictive substitute for Morphine. At first it was thought that Heroin could solve the problem of addiction to Morphine.

About fifteen years later scientists discovered the great addictive power of Heroin.

More recently, something similar happened with the Methadone. In this case also it was believed that it was a drug without the problem of causing addiction. Unfortunately, Methadone is also an addictive drug.



(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)



Heroin was isolated from opium in 1898 ?.

Heroin was first isolated from opium as a non-addictive substitute for morphine, and therefore Heroin will could solve the problem of addiction to Morphine.

Until about fifteen years later scientics did not recognize the great addictive power of Heroin.

More recently, something similar happens with the Methadone, ie in this case was believed that it
was a drug without the problem of addiction. Unfortunately, methadone is also addictive.

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Overdoses of cocaine

Did you know that…..

Overdoses of cocaine produces tremors, convulsion and delirium ?

Death may be due to cardiovascular collapse or respiratory failure.

Cocaine can be used injected, inhaled, or smoked.

There was not abstinence syndrome when the drug is withdrawn.



(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)


cocaine line

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The Crack (English)

Did you know that…..

Crack is the “Free base” of the cocaine ?

The Crack is smoked and produces a very high concentrations of cocaine in plasma that cause serious problems to the cardiovascular and CNS (Central Nervous System).

Two characteristics of that drug are that the speed of onset is shortened and the intensity of the high is magnified.


(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)


Free base of the cocaine

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Research of the Cortex

Topic: Research of the Cortex.

Nowadays there are renowned research centers in our country where researchers do a great work. The results of their studies are published in major international journals such as Nature, British Medical Journal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, etc.

In this article we make reference to the results published by a young researcher, Juan Manuel Abolafia, IDIBAPS in Barcelona (Institut d’Investigacions August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical) on auditory cortex.

Although the phenomenon of neuronal adaptation has been studied for years, yet their neurophysiological mechanisms are discussed.

The authors demonstrated through a parallel study in the awake animal and brain slices that the potassium currents present in communication between neurons (synapses) play an important role in neuronal adaptation.

This same research group also studied the neuronal basis of auditory attention, specifically how neurons in the auditory cortex estimate temporal aspects of stimuli. The authors found that neurons modulate their activity in terms of care and learning, ultimately depending on the environment and the context.

These basic science investigations are fundamental to understanding the physiology or functioning of our brain, the neurological diseases and possible treatments of them.

In addition we want to support research in Spain to avoid the “brain drain“.



(Edited by Dra. Moya Guirao)

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