Search Results for: psychoanalysis

Maria Montessori Biography

Maria Montessori Biography

Maria Montessori (1870-1952) was an intelligent feminist, psychiatrist and Italian pedagogue, who stood out especially in she studied medicinethe field of Pedagogy, and not so much in that of Psychiatry. The most important contribution in Psychiatry was his classification of mental illnesses, curiously realized shortly after Sigmund Freud, the creator of Psychoanalysis, made his famous Classification of Neuroses.

Maria Montessori was born in Chiaraballe, a village in Ancona, (Italy) and died in Noordwjek (Holland). Montessori was the first woman to graduate as a doctor in Italy. María Montessori was the daughter of Alessandro Montessori, a conservative soldier, who initially opposed she studied medicine, and Renilde Stoppani.

Before studying Medicine, María Montessori studied Engineering. Subsequently he also studied Philosophy at the University of Rome, Experimental Psychology, Anthropology, etc. With regard to the latter  subject She even became a professor at the Faculty of Anthropology, and also wrote a book entitled “Pedagogical Anthropology“.

After the unification of Italy, Maria Montessori, a deeply Catholic woman, became interested in the problems of women and children. In 1898 Montessori attended a Pedagogical Congress in Turin In that congress she affirmed that the child with intellectual delay could be educated successfully, and as proof of this she presented the results of her work with retarded children.

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Sigmund Freud Biograghy

Who is Sigmund Freud?

Sigmund Freud, the father of Psychoanalysis, was born on May 6, 1856 in a middle class family in Freiburg (Moravia). When Freud was 4 years old his family moved to Víena.

In 1865 Freud began his secondary studies, which curiously began a year earlier than it was the usual age at that time, and ended with an excellent rating (Summa Cum Laude). Then he began Medicine at the University of Víena.

Already as a student, Sigmund Freud entered the physiological laboratory of Bruecke where he began his research career, centered in those early years in Neurology. Parallely Freud began their publications.

In 1984, Sigmund Freud investigated the anesthetic properties of the cocaine, substance that at that time in Europe was little known. At the same time his friend Carl Koller demonstrated the anesthetic properties of cocaine in Ophthalmology.
Shortly after (1984) Freud entered like professor in University of Víena.
In 1885 he received a scholarship to go to Paris to study with the famous Jean Martin Charcot at the “Hospital de la Salpêtrière“. At that time this French doctor studied the possibilities of hypnosis as a treatment of Hysteria.

After returning from France, Sigmund Freud marched to the Kassowitz Institute in Berlin where he studied the cerebral palsies of children.

Later on, in 1989, Sigmund Freud traveled to Nancy (France) to see how Liébault M.D. and Bernheim M.D. used hypnotic suggestion as a therapeutic technique, not only for Hysteria but also for other neurotic disorders.

His biographer Ernest Jones tells us that Sigmund Freud was a family man, a lover of his profession and a tireless worker.
Freud was a very cultured man who spoke French and English perfectly, as well as Spanish,  which he had learned reading “Don Quixote” in the language of Cervantes. During his youth he also translated several works by Charcot and Bernheim into German.
Sigmund Freud was a great lover of the work of Goethe and Shakespeare, as well as the Greco-Roman culture.

When he reached fame and glory, he was diagnosed with cancer of the jaw and palate against which he fought for 16 years, in the course of which Dr. Pichler performed a total of thirty-three operations under local anesthesia, in addition to radiation. The last ones were so bloody that he agreed, at the insistence of hes doctor, to administer an analgesic called Novocaine. He had previously refused to take painkillers, despite the intense pains he suffered. One of those operations was so drastic that the nasal cavity was communicated with his mouth, so he had to use a jaw and palate prosthesis.
Ernest Jones says in his biography that “he was a perfect patient … Whatever the degree of suffering, there was never a hint of irritability or annoyance in him“.

The University of Clark in the United States invited Sigmund Freud to give a series of lectures and there he was awarded “Doctor Honoris Causa”. Freud’s work was already well known in America, that’s

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Anna Freud Biograghy

Who is Anna Freud ?

Anna Freud (1895-1982) was born in Víena (Austria). She was the youngest of Sigmund Freud‘s six children. Anna studied pedagogy and worked as a teacher, but later on she became psychoanalyst and dedicated herself to the Psychoanalysis of children, being a pioneer in this field.

Anna Freud theories on the analysis of children were published in a small work entitled “Introduction to the technique of psychoanalysis of children“, where she raised a criticism of the theories of Melanie Klein, disagreement that lasted forever.

In 1936 she published his most important work entitled “The Ego and defense mechanisms“.

During the Second World War, already exiled in London, Anna Freud founded the Hampstead nurseries where she studied children separated from their families; The result of these studies were hers two works “War and children” and “Infants without families“, written together with Dorothy Burlingham and in which she talks about the emotional impact of mother-child separation.

Other publications of Anna Freud are:

1 “On the fact of losing and being lost“,

2- “Normality and pathology in childhood“.

In 1950, Anna Freud traveled to Clark University, where his father had also been invited years before, where he gave a lecture entitled “The Contribution of Psychoanalysis to Genetic Psychology“, and she was honored as Doctor Honoris Causa.
The honors and recognitions continued in subsequent years, and thus she also received the title of Doctor Honoris Causa for the Universities of Víena, Columbia, Harvard and Frankfurt.

Anna Freud death was on October 9, 1982 in London, the city where she lived since her departure from Vienna because of the persecution of Nazism.


(Edited by María Moya Guirao M.D.)


Anna Freud

Anna Freud

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Biography of Abraham Maslow

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) was an American psychologist famous for advocating what was called “The Third Force in Psychology“.  This third force proposed a Psychology based on a humanistic approach, the so-called Humanistic Psychology. It was called third force since it came to occupy the third place, after the other prevailing psychologies, which were those of dynamic orientation (Psychoanalysis), and the Behaviorist.

Maslow received his doctorate in Philosophy in 1934. He also studied Watson’s Behaviorism and researched in the area of animal behavior. Later on he was appointed Professor of Psychology at Brandeis University (USA: US), and held the position of President of the American Psychological Association for several years

Furthermore this american psychologist affirmed that Psychology had taken too much care to the study of Psychopathology, that is to say to the sick “psyche“, and had forgotten the healthy or Eusychic mind. From the above he concluded that Psychology, having emphasized the pathological or “sick”, had obtained a partial image of the human being and a pessimistic vision of its potentialities.

In his studies on healthy people Maslow highlighted the value of spontaneity, self-acceptance, impulsive awareness, naturalness and liberation as agents that oppose destructive tendencies. He also highlighted the scope of the inherent potentialities of humanity.

Abraham Maslow affirmed that the human being has certain basic needs. These needs are:

1.- The necessities necessary for the maintenance of life, which would be, on the one hand, hunger and thirst, and on the other the gratification of the impulses of affection and self-esteem. He called these needs D or Deficiency needs.

2.- Needs B or “Meta-needs”. They are what drive a person to self-realization, such as impulses to freedom, beauty, goodness, unity and justice.

Abraham Maslow said: “The restriction of the basic needs can lead the person to neurotic needs that, being really impossible to satisfy, give how to waste human potentiality and exhaust human energy. And this is the fundamental tragedy of mental illness development outcome“.

All the above was captured in a graphic way in his famous pyramid, the “Maslow Pyramid” as it is known

Maslow with his “Psychology of the Third Force” advocated a “Self-Realizing Creativity” that would lead to health and growth. And he added that real people who accept themselves and others are self-realizing. These people would be spontaneous, creative and independent subjects.

In his last studies he talks about “Maximum Experiences” to refer to mystical or self-transcendental experiences.

Most of Maslow theories were exposed in his book “Towards a Psychology of Being“.


(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)


Maslow Pyramid

Maslow Pyramid

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Biografía de James Strachey

¿Quién es James Strachey ?

James Strachey (1887-1967) fue un psicoanalista británico que tradujo al inglés, junto con su esposa Alix, las obras completas de Sigmund Freud, el padre del Psicoanálisis, trabajo que le llevó más de 20 años. Freud alabó dicha traducción llamándoles en varias ocasiones “mis excelentes traductores ingleses”, pues dicha traducción tenía además multitud de anotaciones muy esclarecedoras a pie de página, y era mucho mejor traducción que la realizada con anterioridad por el psicoanalista Arden Brill de algunos escritos del maestro.

También a Strachey se le conoce porque Donald Winnicott, el famoso psicoanalista de niños, realizó con él su análisis didáctico. A su vez James Strachey se analizó con el mismísimo Freud y su esposa con Karl Abraham, discípulo de Freud,

Strachey era un aristócrata inglés hijo de Sir Richard Strachey y Lady Jane Strachey, los cuales tuvieron doce hijos más, además de James. El refería que había nacido de milagro, pues cuando el vino al mundo su padre tenia 70 años y su madre 47, y tenía sobrinos casi de su misma edad. Estudió en la escuela preparatoria de Hillbrow y más tarde sus padres lo enviaron a estudiar a Cambridge, al prestigioso Trinity College.

Ya adulto James Strachey, que era un gran erudito, se movió en el círculo de intelectuales de Bloomsbury Group, entre los que se encontraban Virginia Woolf, el economista británico John M. Keynes, su hermano Lytton Strachey, la pintora Dora Carrington y la que luego fue su esposa Alix Sargant Florence. También era Strachey un gran amante de la música clásica.

Entre sus propios escritos merecen citarse los siguientes:

1.- “Some Unconscious Factors in Reading”, publicado en 1930 en el International Journal of Psychoanaysis.

2.- “Precipitating Factor in the Etiology of Neuroses”, publicado en la misma revista el año siguiente.

3.- “The Nature of the Therapeutic Action of Psychoanalysis” editado en 1934 en la misma revista de Psicoanálisis.


(Editado por la Dra. Moya Guirao)


James Strachey

Foto de James Strachey

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Eric Kandel y el psicoanálisis

¿ Sabías que…..

Eric Kandel, Premio Nobel de Fisiología y Medicina, publicó en The American Journal of Psychiatry un interesante artículo titulado “Biology and the future of psychoanalysis: A new intellectual framework for psychiatry revisited” ?

En dicho articulo decía, entre otras cosas, lo siguiente:

– El psicoanálisis todavia representa la visión más coherente e intelectualmente satisfactoria de la mente.

Freud nos enseñó a escuchar con atención a los pacientes y de una nueva manera, en una forma que nadie había usado antes.

– Sigmund Freud y sus alumnos hicieron importantes contribuciones al conocimiento de los procesos mentales inconscientes y a las motivaciones.

– Freud es el gran pensador moderno sobre las motivaciones humanas.

– El siglo XX ha sido marcado por la comprensión profunda de Freud de los problemas psicológicos que históricamente han ocupado la mente occidental.

– Los puntos fuertes del psicoanálisis son su alcance y la complejidad de las cuestiones que aborda.
Eric R. Kandel nació en Austria en 1929, pero ha desarrollado toda su carrera en los Estados Unidos de América donde ha sido profesor en las Universidades de Columbia y de Nueva York. Kandel es un neuropsiquiatra que ha realizado importantísimas aportaciones al conocimiento de la Fisiología de la memoria y el aprendizaje.

Entre sus numerosas publicaciones merece la pena citar “Principios de neurociencia” y “Psiquiatría, psicoanálisis y la nueva biología de la mente“.

(Editado por la Dra. Moya Guirao)


Foto de Eric R. Kandel

Eric R. Kandel

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Anual meeting de la Asociación Americana de Psiquiatría

¿ Sabías que…..

del próximo 18 al 22 del mes de Mayo (2013) la American Psychiatric Association celebrará su “meeting” anual ?

El “meeting” de este año tendrá lugar en la ciudad de San Francisco (California), y el discurso de apertura estará a cargo del ex-presidente de Estados Unidos de América Bill Clinton. Este meeting de la American Psychiatric Association hace el número 166.

En el citado meeting una serie de figuras relevantes de la medicina (cinco Premios Nobel) impartirán conferencias. Entre dichas personalidades podemos encontrar a los siguientes médicos importantes:

Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Ph.D., que fue Premio Nobel de Medicina en el año 2009, Stanley B. Prusiner, M.D., Premio Nobel de Medicina en 1997, y Nora D. Volkow, M.D.,  Directora del Institute on Drug Abuse.

Durante el meeting habrá mas de 400 actividades entre conferencias, mesas redondas, exposición de casos clínicos, etc. Y los temas a tratar abarcan : Psiquiatría infantil y adolescente, Psiquiatría Forense, Psiquiatría Geriátrica, Medicina Psicosomática, el DSM-5, últimas investigaciones, etc.

A este meeting anual asistirán mas de 13.000 profesionales de la salud mental: psiquiatras, psicólogos, enfermeras, trabajadores sociales, etc., de los Estados Unidos de América y de más de 50 países. Este meeting anual de la American Psychiatric Association es considerado como el acontecimiento anual más importante en el campo de la Psiquiatría.

Al meeting pueden también asistir estudiantes de medicina. La asistencia les reportará 50 créditos, los cuales serán reconocidos por sus universidades.

Los días anteriores, del 16 al 18, será The Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry (Academia de Psicoanálisis y Psiquiatría Dinámica) la que celebrará su 57th Annual Meeting en la misma ciudad.


(Editado por la Dra. Moya Guirao)

                                                                                                 Retrato de Bill Clinton

Logo de la Asociación Americana de Psiquiatría

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Artículos sobre Violencia familiar

Artículos sobre Violencia familiar hay en las más prestigiosas revistas de Psiquiatría, Psicoanálisis y Psicología.

Pregunta : Articulo sobre violencia familiar.

Respuesta : Hay mucho publicado sobre el tema de la violencia familiar, también llamada violencia doméstica.

Nosotros le sugerimos que consulte en las más prestigiosas revistas de Psiquiatría, Psicoanálisis y Psicología. Algunas de ellas publican en inglés y en español. También suelen aparecer artículos sobre violencia doméstica o familiar en las revistas jurídicas y en publicaciones de Sociología. A continuación le indicamos algunas de ellas con su correspondiente enlace.

International Journal of Psychoanalysis

Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association

The American Journal of Psychoanalysis

The British Journal of Psychiatry

The American Journal of Psychiatry

The American Journal of Psychology

British Journal of Psychology

British Journal of Psychotherapy


(Editado por la Dra. Moya Guirao)

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Consulta en Madrid. Más de 30 años de experiencia. Tratamiento  de Psicosis, Trastornos de Ansiedad, Depresión. Trastorno Bipolar, Fobias, Obsesiones, Timidez, problemas de pareja, Trastornos sexuales, Adicciones, Anorexia Nerviosa, Bulimia, Trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad, Trastornos psicosomáticos, problemas escolares, etc.

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