Search Results for: psychoanalysis

Hermine Hug-Hellmuth Biography

Topic: Hermine Hug-Hellmuth Biography

Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth (1871-1924), actually her name was von Hug Hugenstein, was a pioneer in child psychoanalytic therapy. She was the daughter of a military in good standing. Hermine never married and died tragically murdered by her nephew Rolf. That nephew of 18 years was the natural son of his sister Antoine, who had been at her charge after the death of her sister.

Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth, following the footsteps of her sister, Antoine, became a children teacher. Later she entered the University of Vienna, graduating and obtaining a doctorate in Sciences Physics. In 1909 he defended his doctoral thesis about the physical and chemical properties of radioactive substances. Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth was one of the first Viennese women in college.

She became interested in the theories of Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis when  she started her own psychoanalysis with the analyst Isidor Sadger.

In 1910 Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth published in the Zentralblatt für Psychoanalyse her first article entitled “The Analysis of a Dream of a 5-Year Old Boy“. Later she published another interesting article entitled “The Nature of the Child’s Soul (Or Psyche” (1913), and in 1919 “A study of the mental life of the child“.

Hermine became a member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society in 1913, and was closely involved in its journal “Imago” and in the “International Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse “.

In 1920 Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth participates at the Congress of Psychoanalysis in The Hague where she has a paper entitled “On the Technique of the Analysis of Children“.

Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth published the book “The Analysis of a Dream of a 5-Year Old Boy” in 1912, when Anna Freud was 18 and Melanie Klein began to be interested in the studies of Freud. That’s why she is considered the pioneer in the psychoanalytic treatment of children and the use of the game (play therapy) to understand the child’s mind. Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth was really the first to adapt psychoanalytic technique at the age of the child. She said: “The purpose of analysis, both adults and children, is the same: restoring mental health.”

At first it was thought that psychoanalysis could only be carried out after 17 or 18, but Hug-Hellmuth adapted psychoanalysis to the child’s age.

It was thought that Hermine von Hug-Hellmuth wrote a book called “A Young Girl’s Diary“, published anonymously in 1919. The book was a great success and several editions were sold in no time. The book is written in first person by a young woman named Rita who speaks, among other things, about “awakening sexuality”. People as influential as Lou Andreas-Salome or the writer Stefan Zweig spoke very highly of that book.

Hermine Hug-Hellmuth stayed true to psychoanalytic orthodoxy, and was among the favorite disciples of Freud.

 

(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

 

Hermine Hug-Hellmuth

 

 

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Biografía de August Aichhorn

¿ Quién es August Aichhorn ?

August Aichhorn (1878-1949) fue un pedagogo austríaco pionero en aplicar los descubrimientos de Freud a la educación de niños delincuentes.

Aichhorn no era psicólogo ni médico, era maestro en una escuela primaria de Víena. Su amiga Anna Freud fue quien le introdujo en el Psicoanálisis, y enseguida pasó a formar parte de la Sociedad Psicoanalítica de Víena, además de empezar a realizar su análisis didáctico con Paul Federn.

En 1918, al finalizar la Primera Guerra Mundial, las autoridades vienesas le encargaron la educación de niños y adolescentes con problemas, y también se le hizo responsable de un centro educativo para niños delincuentes. Aichhorn fue el primero en aplicar el psicoanálisis en la educación y tratamiento de los delincuentes juveniles y niños disminuidos. Estaba en contra de la educacional tradicional basada en castigos y restricciones que imperaba en los reformatorios de la época, y pensaba que eso, lejos de arreglar nada, más bien agravaba el problema. Nadie duda de ello en la actualidad, y así se tiene en cuenta hoy en día.

Entre sus publicaciones merece citarse su libro “Juventud desamparada”, editado en 1925 con un prólogo de Sigmund Freud. En dicho prólogo Freud escribió lo siguiente: “su actitud ante sus pupilos se alimentó en una cordial simpatia por el destino de esos desventurados y fue felizmente guiado correctamente por una comprensión intuitiva de sus necesidades psíquicas“.

En esa publicación Aichhorn afirmaba que el comportamiento antisocial era similar a los síntomas neuróticos y que, al igual que éstos, su origen estaba en las experiencias vividas en la infancia. Fue pionero en sostener que el comportamiento antisocial tenia que ver con determinadas experiencias emocionales sufridas en la niñez, y afirmaba que el conocimiento de los motivos inconscientes de tales comportamientos ayudaría a la reinserción social de los niños con comportamientos problemáticos.

Además de su cargo de director de los reformatorios municipales, August Aichhorn fue encargado, de 1931 a 1932, por Dorothy Burlingham de dirigir la escuela que ella había creado.

Después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial fue director del International Journal of Psychoanalysis.

 

(Editado por la Dra. Moya Guirao)

Retrato de August Aichhorn

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The Origins of Hypnosis

The origins of Hypnosis are unclear, but we know that the Egyptians, Greeks and the Chinese already known it centuries before our era.

In 1765 Mesmer used “magnets” to produce a kind of hypnosis that later became very popular, after known as “mesmerism“, and which was based on the doctrine of Paracelsus who argued that the heavenly bodies influence the man through the emission of a magnetic fluid.

But modern hypnosis begins in Portugal around 1825 with the Abbe Faria, who produced trances couching the person, making him suggestions of drowsiness and ordering him, with authority, to sleep. The abbot said that hypnosis is not of divine origin, as was thought in antiquity, neither it is due to magnetism, as Mesmer said. He thought that hypnosis is due to “suggestion“.

In 1841 James Braid, a physician from Manchester, introduced the technique to focus attention on an object, for that he used the box where he kept the syringes, saying to the person to stare it.

Charcot later began to use “hypnotic suggestion” with the women who suffered from hysterical neurosis and he ordered them, while they were hypnotized, to do some action.

Around the same time, in France too, Bernheim and Liebeault were the pioneers in the use of “post-hypnotic suggestion“. When the subject was awakened from the trance he had to do something or, for instance, they ordered to the person that the pain would disappear upon awakening.

Freud also used hypnosis in his early years but later abandoned it in favor of free association, which marks the beginning of a new psycho-therapeutic technique, the psychoanalysis.

 

(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

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Biografía de Melanie Klein

¿Quién es Melanie Klein ?

Melanie Klein (1882-1960) fue una psicoanalista vienesa hija de un médico judío. Klein quiso estudiar medicina pero contrajo matrimonio muy joven y esto le imposibilitó realizar su deseo.

Empieza a interesarse por el Psicoanálisis tras leer a Sigmund Freud. Poco después Melanie Klein, aquejada de una depresión, empieza a analizarse con Sándor Ferenczi en Budapest, ciudad a la cual se había ido a vivir por el trabajo de su esposo.

En 1919 Melanie Klein presenta un pequeño trabajo titulado “La novela familiar en status nascendi“, y se convierte en miembro de la Sociedad Psicoanalítica de Budapest.

Dos años después Klein marcha a Berlin donde empieza un nuevo análisis con Karl Abraham  e ingresa como miembro en la Sociedad Psicoanalítica berlinesa.

Resultado de su experiencia en el análisis de niños Melanie Klein presenta en el VIII Congreso de Salzburgo una ponencia titulada ” La técnica del análisis de niños“, y meses después expone en Víena “Principios psicológicos del Psicoanálisis infantil“.En 1926  Melanie Klein se instala en Inglaterra donde se convierte en miembro de la Sociedad Psicoanalítica Británica.

Seis años más tarde (en 1932) esta psicoanalista publica “Psychoanalysis of Children” donde expone sus ideas sobre el psicoanálisis infantil y el uso del juego como recurso terapéutico. Melanie Klein nos cuenta ahí como los niños expresan sus fantasías y conflictos a través del juego.

Otros trabajos de Melanie Klein son :

  1. Contribución a la psicogénesis de los estados maníacos“.
  2. El duelo y su relación con los estados maníaco-depresivos“.
  3. Desarrollo en Psicoanálisis“.
  4. Contribuciones al Psicoanálisis“.
  5. Amor culpa y reparación“, (con Joan Riviére).
  6. Envidia y gratitud“.
  7. Relato del psiconálisis de un niño“. (Obra póstuma).

Freud fue reticente a aceptar las teorías de esta psicoterapeuta, y con su hija Anna Freud mantuvo una constante polémica que dividió a los psicoanalistas en partidarios de la ideas de una o de otra. Contó con el apoyo de Ernest Jones, pero no con el de figuras tan prestigiosas como Otto Fenichel, Franz Alexander y Sándor Rado, quienes además no estaban muy de acuerdo con su falta de titulación académica.

Las principales ideas de Melanie Klein serían las siguientes :
  • Señaló la importancia de la función maternal en la vida psíquica de los individuos, y pensó que de esta primera experiencia pueden surgir las primeras vivencias de ansiedad.
  • Acepto los dos instintos freudianos, Eros y Tánatos, atribuyendo al primero la fuente de amor y al segundo la fuente de angustia. Dice ella: “La acción interna de la pulsión de muerte produce el temor al aniquilamiento, y ésta es la causa primaria de la angustia persecutoria”.
  • La primera manifestación del instinto de muerte es el “sadismo oral“, que se proyecta al exterior en forma de miedos persecutorios. La envidia, la codicia y los celos derivarían de esta agresividad oral. Por el contrario la emoción predominante ligada al Eros sería la “gratitud“; ésta haría disminuir la codicia, mientras que la envidia la aumentaría.
  • La relación primaria del bebé con el “pecho materno” es el modelo básico que configura todas las ulteriores relaciones del niño y

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Havelock Ellis y Sigmund Freud

¿Sabías que…..

Havelock Ellis escribió en 1911 en una memoria enviada al Congreso Médico de Australia una comunicación titulada “The Doctrines of the Freud School” en la que señalaba la importancia del Psicoanálisis, y como éste se había extendido por diferentes países ?

Freud’s psychoanalysis is now championed and carried out not only in Austria and in Switzerland, but in the United States, in England, in India, in Canada and, I doubt not in Australasia….”

 

 

(Editado por la Dra. Moya Guirao)

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Jean Piaget and the stages of development (English)

Did you know that…..

Jean Piaget (1896- 1980), a Swiss psychologist, was a pioneer in discovering that intellectual development proceeds in stages ?

Jean Piaget got a degree and doctorate in Biology. After spending a semester in Zurich, where he started to psychoanalysis. In 1919 Piaget will work for a year in the laboratory of Alfred Binet in Paris. He became professor of Psychology and Sociology at the University of Lausanne in 1929.

He published very important studies on child psychology. Piaget also has described the development of intelligence, and concepts like space and time in the different stages of childhood. His studies are based on the growth of their own children.
Piaget defined a sequence of four stages of development: Sensorimotor stage, preoperative stage, stage of concrete operations, and stage of formal operations.

The essential contribution to knowledge was Piaget have demonstrated that the child has specific ways of thinking which differentiate the adult.

Jean Piaget was more than thirty honorary doctorates from various universities in the world and numerous awards.

 

(Edited by Dra. Moya Guirao)

 

Jean Piaget

 

 

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The Couch in the Psychoanalytic Therapy (English)

The “orthodox psychoanalysis” use the couch in order to facilitate the free association (the patients reclining upon the couch removes some of the distractions).

Furthermore, the lying on the couch with the analyst sitting behind the couch gives the analyst an opportunity to observe his patient without having to be conscious of his own reactions.

 

(Edited by Dra. Moya Guirao)

 

Freud’s Couch pictureFreud’s Couch

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Melanie Klein Biography

Who is Melanie Klein ?

Melanie Klein was a psychoanalyst born in Vienna in 1882 and died in London in 1960.

She started her training with Sándor Ferenczi, and later on with Karl Abraham.

In 1919 Melanie Klein presents a small work entitled “The family novel in status nascendi“, and became a member of the Psychoanalytic Society of Budapest.

Two years later Klein went to Berlin where she began a new analysis with Karl Abraham and joined the Berlin Psychoanalytic Society as a member. Result of her experience in the analysis of children Melanie Klein presented at the 8th Congress of Salzburg a paper entitled “The technique of analysis of children”, and months later she exhibited in Víena “Psychological Principles of Child Psychoanalysis“. In 1926 Melanie Klein settled in England where she became a member of the British Psychoanalytic Society.

Six years later (in 1932) this psychoanalyst publishes “Psychoanalysis of Children” where she presented her ideas about child psychoanalysis and the use of the game as a therapeutic resource. Melanie Klein tells us there how children express their fantasies and conflicts through the game. She discovered the use of toys in child therapy with a very silent child patient, the “Ludotherapy“. She analysed children, at that time a new field.

Melanie Klein contributions to psychoanalysis theory are :

a)-early stages of Oedipus complex and super-ego formation,

b)-early operation of introjective and projective mechanisms in building up the child’s inner word of fantasy,

c)-the concepts of paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions,

d)-clarification of the difference between two sorts of identification : introjective and projective.

e)-the importance of a very early form of envy.

Sigmund Freud was reluctant to accept the theories of this psychotherapist, and with his daughter Anna Freud maintained a constant controversy that divided the psychoanalysts in favor of the ideas of one or the other. Melanie Klein had the support of Ernest Jones, but not with such prestigious figures as Otto Fenichel, Franz Alexander and Sándor Rado, who also did not agree with her lack of academic qualifications.

 

 

(Edited by María Moya Guirao M.D.)

 

"Melanie Klein"

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