Search Results for: psychoanalysis

Free Association

Did you know that…..

Sigmund Freud used the technique of “free association” to replace hypnosis as a method of lessening resistance, and thus psychoanalysis emerged ?

The discovering of free association may be considered the beginning of analytic therapy.

 

 

(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

Sigmund Freud

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Psychotherapy Experiencial of Whitaker

Topic: Psychotherapy experiencial of Whitaker.

The Psychotherapy Experiencial of Whitaker is a modification of the orthodox psychoanalysis designed by an American psychoanalyst called Whitaker and his group of Emory University in Atlanta (USA), among that also the Dr. Malone deserves to be mentioned.

Whitaker was defining the psychotherapy as ” a situation where a person (therapist) acts catalyzing the process of growth of another (patient), and taking her to a major level of adaptative capacity “.

Also he was thinking that the psychotherapy would help in the process of personal growth, and they called her “experiencial” because it emphasis in the experience of the treatment itself and in the interrelationship therapist – patient, more than in the use of interpretations.

This psychoanalyst was the introductory one of the so called “Polytherapy” in which several therapists were using for the same patient.

 

 

(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

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Child-guidance Clinics

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In the field of Psychiatry one of the most significant event was the creation of child- guidance clinics ?

It started with William Healy in 1909 in the institute devoted to the study of juvenile problems in Chicago.

William Healy (1869-1963) was a psychiatrist and one of the founder of the American Orthopsychiatric Association. He published in 1915 an famous book entitled “The Individual Delinquent”, result of his historical research investigations of several institutions for delinquents.

Healy also contributed to introduce the Psychoanalysis in America and the theories of Sigmund Freud.

 

 

(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

 

The Individual Delinquent book

 

 

 

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The Psychoanalytic Theory

The Psychoanalytic Theory

Psychoanalysis is a depth psychology and gives especial significance to pre-conscious and un-conscious psychic activities.

Freud affirmed  present behavior can only be understood in terms of past environmental experiences,

He published  two important books : “Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality” and  “Interpretation of Dreams“,  He wrote in this papers about infantile sexuality .
The children libido seen to go through distinct phases of development. in each phase there is characteristic pleasurable bodily zones :

  • The oral phase Lasts from birth until one-and-a-half years of age. The most important pleasurable activity is sucking
  • The anal phase occurs between one-and-a-half to three years.The most important source of bodily pleasure comes from anus.
  • The fallic phase last from the thirth to seventh year. After this phase comes the latency period until the beginning of puberty, age about twelve .

 

(Edited by Dra. Moya Guirao)

Sigmund Freud

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Oedipus Complex

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for Psychoanalysis the Oedipus complex is the love to the mother and hostile rivalry to the father ?
Sigmund Freud, the famous psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, discovered two trends in childhood (3 to 5 years) love the opposite sex parent and hostility to same-sex parent. That is, the child experiences a keen love for his mother, who is at that time the female person more worthy of interest. Simultaneously experiencing aggression against his father, which sees a successful rival, whose strength the child admires and envy.

Girls also experience it, but love is directed toward the father and hostility toward the mother.

Sigmund Freud took the name Oedipus Complex from Greek mythology.

 

(Edited by María. Moya Guirao, M.D.)

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Biografía de Karen Horney

¿ Quién es Karen Horney ?

Karen Horney (1885-1952) fue una psicoanalista alemana que nació en Hamburgo, hija de una capitán de barco noruego. Debido a lo anterior realizó numerosos viajes que le permitieron conocer diversas culturas. Estas experiencias, junto con las ideas de filósofos como Hegel y Nietzsche, y de escritores como Goethe y Schiller, influirían en sus teorías.

Karen Horney se graduó como médico y psiquiatra, convirtiendose en psicoanalista. Formó parte activa del Instituto Psicoanalítico de Berlín, donde realizó su análisis didáctico con Karl Abraham.

En 1932 Horney marcha a Estados Unidos invitada por Franz Alexander al Psychoanalytic Institute de Chicago. Dos años después se instala en Nueva York, donde vivió y ejerció como psicanalista y miembro activo de la Sociedad Psicoanalítica de Nueva York hasta su muerte, acaecida en 1952.

Entre las publicaciones de esta psicoanalista merecen destacarse :

– The Neurotic Personality of our Time

– New Ways in Psychoanalysis

– Self Analysis

– Our Inner Conflicts

– Neurosis and Human Grouth

– Are You Considering Psychoanalysis?

Entre sus principales teorías es interesante su concepto del YO y de la Neurosis.

Respecto a lo primero, Horney habla de un “YO real“, que sería una fuerza interna que haría frente a los desafíos internos y externos mediante sus capacidades. Para esta psicoterapeuta la conducta depende del “ser” de la persona, es decir la forma en que ésta se siente en el mundo; sería similar al “Being and Time” de Heidegger. Esto le llevó a afirmar que el niño cuando crece necesita una sana fricción con los “deseos de los demás” para desarrollar sus propias dotes naturales.

En cuanto a la Neurosis sostenía Karen Horney que la ansiedad básica era su núcleo dinámico, y que la causa de la misma era la hostilidad reprimida. Así mismo, se refería a que algunas personas la racionalizan, la niegan, la narcotizan o la evitan.

También afirmaba que en la familia de los neuróticos se daba con frecuencia carencias de calor, afecto o amor genuino.

 

(Editado por la Dra. Moya Guirao)

Retrato de Karen Horney

Retrato de Karen Horney

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