Posts Tagged Under: anxiety

The Hospitalism and Rene Spitz

beloved mother

beloved mother

The american psychoanalyst Rene Spitz (1887-1974) described the Hospitalism Syndrome in 1945. This syndrome occurs in babies when they are separated from a loving mother for a period of more than three months.
Hospitalism is caused by not being attended children in their
emotional needs (hugs, caresses, talking to them, smiling, etc.), even if they had been given exquisite care in their physical needs (food, medical care, proper clothing, etc.).

This Rene Spitz discovery, hospitalism, made it necessary to take into account the emotional and affective needs of babies admitted to institutions. And so, mothers were allowed to stay with their children when they were admitted to a hospital. The presence of the mother with the child reduces anxiety and helps a faster recovery; that is why currently in children’s hospitals, mothers are allowed to stay with their sick children.

But a sick child should not be overprotected, and it will be treated, as far as possible, not too different from the rest of the children of their age. Most children’s hospitals have teachers and a “school” where children can go every day to perform different tasks. This is especially important for children who have to be hospitalized for a long time.

The family will give the sick children affection and attention. Family must help and facilitate proper activities for his sick childrem. But family will take special care that the child does not obtain certain “secondary earnings” on account of his sick status.

In summary, the Hospitalism Syndrome will be avoided with the presence with of their beloved mother.

(Edited by Dr. María Moya Guirao, MD)

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Sigmund Freud Theories

Topic: Major theories of Sigmund Freud .

1) Structure of the psyche or mind: Conscious, Preconscious and Unconscious.

2) Later created a second scheme psychical: It, Ego and Super-ego.

3) Theory of instincts : Freud initially claimed that exist, the sexual instinct and aggressive instinct. Then Freud talked of the Thanatos (destructive force) and the Eros (life force).

4) Oedipus complex: the child experienced a kind of “love” to her mother and considered, at that time, the father as a rival in the affection and attention of the mother.

The same situation occurs in reverse in girls.

5) The Libido: force that represents the sexual instinct, understood not in genital sense, but in a broader sense.

The development of the libido from birth to adulthood comprises the following phases:

  • Oral , until the end of the first year in which libidinal energy is focused in the mouth.
  • Anal, until three years or so.
  • Phallic , in which the libido moves the phallus and lasts up to five years or less.
  • Phase Latency , which seems to be a decrease in libidinal interests.
  • Genital libido focuses on the genitals. This last stage lasts from early adolescence to adulthood.

Besides the above, Freud studied the meanning of the dreams, hysterical neurosis, obsessional neurosis, anxiety, phobias, etc.


(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)


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Borderline Personality Disorder or Borderline Syndrome

Did you know that…..

M. Shmideberg, said that Borderline Personality Disorder or Borderline Syndrome is a clinical entity that contains elements of neuroses, psychoses, psychopathy, and depression ?

Other symptoms of the Borderline personality disorder are :

– anxiety, and painful feelings,
– peculiar behavior, and negativism,
– hostility, instability, and antisocial behavior,
– lack of concentration and perseverance,
– low tolerance for frustration, inability to accept rules, and lack of self control,
– and these persons with Borderline personality disorder cannot visualize the future in any realistic manner.

Borderline patients suffer from disturbances affecting almost every area of their life, personal relations, feeling, and capacity for work.

(Edited by Dr. María Moya Guirao, MD)

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is characterized by the presence in the consciousness of recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive impulses or actions (compulsions) toward which the person feels a strong inner resistance. The subject feels an urge to perform certain acts, but he recognizes that they are sickly, while experiencing a strong internal resistance not to make them.

Patients with OCD recognize that the obsessives ideas that come to their head are absurd and they make much effort trying to banish them from his mind. Often their efforts may have some success, but it is not durable, since ideas tend to come back again soon after.

Sometimes both the compulsive ideas as the compulsive acts are experienced as an urge to do something aggressive, shameful or obscene.

Although subjects with this disorder Obsessive-Compulsive recognize the absurdity of the obsessions and resist putting it into action, all the process is accompanied by great anxiety.

This type of obsessive-compulsive symptoms tend to be very resilient, but can be cured by psychotherapy.

(Edited by Dr. María Moya Guirao, MD)

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Phobic Disorders

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Phobic Disorders are characterized by an irrational or exaggerated fears to situations, animals, or objects, not really dangerous in themselves ?

The person frequently utilizes a lot of defensive maneuvers to avoid them.

Often, the only thought of the phobic object or situation provokes anxiety in the patient

The phobia leads the subject to restrictions on his activities and the normal functions for daily life.

(Edited by Dr. María Moya Guirao, MD)

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Depression symptoms

The Depression symptoms are:

The patient with Depression uses to have an low mood, and  a sensation of  loss and frustration.

The person shows diminution or retardation in his social, affective, or intellectual activities, and also a decline of his sources of pleasure.

He feels a sense of helplessness. He may respond favorably to encouragement, but usually does so only briefly.

His mental processes remain intact, though tending to manifest mild or moderate degrees of sluggishness, which he may overcome by effort .

He is likely to feel overburdened by ordinary tasks, or  has difficult in concentrating , or soon tired from it. The subject tends to digress or divert himself from responsible activities.

In addition to feel excessively the weight of responsibility, the patient express anger, even  anxiety, by his disorganization and his lack of persistence in his approach to tasks.

His achieved level of productivity is reduced.


(Edited by Dr. María Moya Guirao, MD)

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Pregnancy and Mental Health Among Womens Veterans of War

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A recent study affirms that the women veterans of war with a pregnancy were twice as likely to have a diagnosis of Depression, Anxiety, Post-traumatic stress, Bipolar disorder, or Schizophrenia as the women veterans without pregnancy ?

This qualified investigation: “Pregnancy and Mental Health between Women Returning Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan“, has been directed by Kristin M. Hoes, PH. D., and has been published in the Journal of Women’s Health (Volume 19, Number 12).
Many soldiers experience an important stress during the military service that can have lingering effects. The women veterans, like the men, commonly experience problems of mental health after the military service.

The aim of that study was to determine the prevalence of mental health problem between 43.078 pregnant women veterans (between the ages of 18 and 50), which received care in the Veterans Health Administration system.

The authors of that study state that untreated mental problems during pregnancy may produce preterm delivery, and low birth weight.

Since the beginning of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan more than 170.000 female soldiers have been deployed in those countries (7.500 in Vietnam, and 41.000 in Gulf war).


(Edited by Dr. María Moya Guirao, MD)

mapa de Iraq y Afghanistan

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