Posts Tagged Under: psychology

Stanley Milgram Experiment

Did you know…..

recently it has been seen that the conclusions of the famous experiment of Stanley Milgram, researcher of the prestigious Yale University, are not valid due to the multiple irregularities that occurred in its realization?

The Milgran experiment has been taught for decades in Psychology Faculties throughout the world, and is present in most of the books of Experimental Psychology and Social Psychology.

The methodological errors of the experiment have been detected by Australian researchers from the University of Melbourne, Nick Haslam, Steve Loughnan and Gina Perry, when reviewing the files of the experiment that are kept at Yale. This review has been published in the scientific journal PLOS ONE.

These researchers say that the study of Milgram has been considered as the most emblematic experiment in the history of Psychology, and that in the fifty years since it took place there has been much debate about whether Milgram demonstrated the ability of ordinary people to do the evil and the roots of the Jewish Holocaust, but nobody until now had reviewed it.

The experiment that Stanley Milgram conducted in 1961 consisted of alleged students responding to a memory test, and when they failed a teacher should give him an electric shock, a discharge that increased in intensity as they gave more errors, even reaching a discharge that could be mortal Actually the device did not produce any discharge, but the student pretended to receive it. Well, according to the Milgram, some teachers gave painful discharges to students who failed in their answers, even knowing the great pain they produced.

 

(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

 

 

Stanley Milgram Experiment

Stanley Milgram Experiment

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Biography of Abraham Maslow

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) was an American psychologist famous for advocating what was called “The Third Force in Psychology“.  This third force proposed a Psychology based on a humanistic approach, the so-called Humanistic Psychology. It was called third force since it came to occupy the third place, after the other prevailing psychologies, which were those of dynamic orientation (Psychoanalysis), and the Behaviorist.

Maslow received his doctorate in Philosophy in 1934. He also studied Watson’s Behaviorism and researched in the area of animal behavior. Later on he was appointed Professor of Psychology at Brandeis University (USA: US), and held the position of President of the American Psychological Association for several years

Furthermore this american psychologist affirmed that Psychology had taken too much care to the study of Psychopathology, that is to say to the sick “psyche“, and had forgotten the healthy or Eusychic mind. From the above he concluded that Psychology, having emphasized the pathological or “sick”, had obtained a partial image of the human being and a pessimistic vision of its potentialities.

In his studies on healthy people Maslow highlighted the value of spontaneity, self-acceptance, impulsive awareness, naturalness and liberation as agents that oppose destructive tendencies. He also highlighted the scope of the inherent potentialities of humanity.

Abraham Maslow affirmed that the human being has certain basic needs. These needs are:

1.- The necessities necessary for the maintenance of life, which would be, on the one hand, hunger and thirst, and on the other the gratification of the impulses of affection and self-esteem. He called these needs D or Deficiency needs.

2.- Needs B or “Meta-needs”. They are what drive a person to self-realization, such as impulses to freedom, beauty, goodness, unity and justice.

Abraham Maslow said: “The restriction of the basic needs can lead the person to neurotic needs that, being really impossible to satisfy, give how to waste human potentiality and exhaust human energy. And this is the fundamental tragedy of mental illness development outcome“.

All the above was captured in a graphic way in his famous pyramid, the “Maslow Pyramid” as it is known

Maslow with his “Psychology of the Third Force” advocated a “Self-Realizing Creativity” that would lead to health and growth. And he added that real people who accept themselves and others are self-realizing. These people would be spontaneous, creative and independent subjects.

In his last studies he talks about “Maximum Experiences” to refer to mystical or self-transcendental experiences.

Most of Maslow theories were exposed in his book “Towards a Psychology of Being“.

 

(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

 

Maslow Pyramid

Maslow Pyramid

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Behaviorism

Did you know that…..

Behaviorism means a mechanistic and biological approach of psychology, animal and human  ?

Behaviorism thinks that psychology should be as objective as physical science. Behaviorism says that the behavior is the only aspect of human psychology that can be measured.  Behaviorism affirms the emotions, the thoughts, and other internal topics of human mind are subjectives, and they are impossible to measure.

Behaviorism and other stimulus-response theories represent the mathematical and physical science applied to psychology.

 

 

(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

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Sigmund Freud’s Fundamental Studies

Did you know that…..

Freud’s fundamental studies on the ego and the mechanisms of defense constituted the beginning of the development of ego psychology ?

Following Sigmund Freud`s formulations there are three basic structures : the id, the ego and the super-ego.

 

 

(Edited María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

Sigmund Freud

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The Psychoanalytic Theory

The Psychoanalytic Theory

Psychoanalysis is a depth psychology and gives especial significance to pre-conscious and un-conscious psychic activities.

Freud affirmed  present behavior can only be understood in terms of past environmental experiences,

He published  two important books : “Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality” and  “Interpretation of Dreams“,  He wrote in this papers about infantile sexuality .
The children libido seen to go through distinct phases of development. in each phase there is characteristic pleasurable bodily zones :

  • The oral phase Lasts from birth until one-and-a-half years of age. The most important pleasurable activity is sucking
  • The anal phase occurs between one-and-a-half to three years.The most important source of bodily pleasure comes from anus.
  • The fallic phase last from the thirth to seventh year. After this phase comes the latency period until the beginning of puberty, age about twelve .

 

(Edited by Dra. Moya Guirao)

Sigmund Freud

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Consulta en Madrid. Más de 30 años de experiencia. Tratamiento  de Psixosis, Trastornos de Ansiedad, Depresión. Trastorno Bipolar, Fobias, Obsesiones, Timidez, problemas de pareja, Trastornos sexuales, Adicciones, Anorexia Nerviosa, Bulimia, Trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad, Trastornos psicosomáticos, problemas escolares, etc.

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