Search Results for: Depression

Pregnancy and Depression

Did you know …..

that a recent research undertaken at the Universities of Cardiff and Bristol (UK) has shown that when a mother suffers from Depression during pregnancy influences the child’s future mental balance ?

They studied a sample of 120 young women. Children were studied at birth, at 4, 11 and 16 years old. That research found that there was more children with antisocial behavior and a depressive mother during pregnancy than in the rest of the population of those ages.

(Edited by Dr. María Moya Guirao, MD)

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Depression symptoms

The Depression symptoms are:

The patient with Depression uses to have an low mood, and  a sensation of  loss and frustration.

The person shows diminution or retardation in his social, affective, or intellectual activities, and also a decline of his sources of pleasure.

He feels a sense of helplessness. He may respond favorably to encouragement, but usually does so only briefly.

His mental processes remain intact, though tending to manifest mild or moderate degrees of sluggishness, which he may overcome by effort .

He is likely to feel overburdened by ordinary tasks, or  has difficult in concentrating , or soon tired from it. The subject tends to digress or divert himself from responsible activities.

In addition to feel excessively the weight of responsibility, the patient express anger, even  anxiety, by his disorganization and his lack of persistence in his approach to tasks.

His achieved level of productivity is reduced.

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(Edited by Dr. María Moya Guirao, MD)

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Anaclitic Depression (English)

Did you know that….

in 1946 René Spitz described a severe disturbance of infancy which he called “Anaclitic Depression” ?

Retrato de René Spitz

This is a condition in which infants who have just established a good relationship with the mother or a sustitute maternal figure, lose this and develop a mourning reaction wich can progress to a state of depressive withdrawal and debilitation.

 

 

(Edited by María Moya Guirao, M.D.)

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Dosis óptima de antidepresivos

planeta Tierra

planeta Tierra

¿Qué dosis óptima de Antidepresivos se debe prescribir?

Para estudiar cual sería en cada caso la dosis óptima de Antidepresivos, Inhibidores de la Recaptación de Serotonina, Venlafaxina y Mirtazapina, la Universidad de Kioto (Japón), en colaboración con la Universidad de Oxford (Reino Unido), la Universidad de Munich (Alemania), y la Universidad de Bern (Suiza) han realizado un estudio para determinarlo. El citado estudio se ha publicado en The Lancet Psychiatry bajo el siguiente título: “Optimal dose of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine, and mirtazapine in major depression: a systematic review and ddose response meta-analysis“.

Los investigadores llevaron a cabo una revisión sistemática y un metaanálisis de dosis-respuesta de ensayos controlados aleatorios doble-ciego que examinaban dosis fijas de antidepresivos prescritos para el tratamiento de adultos que padecían depresión mayor. Para esta revisión se usaron datos 77 trabajos que incluían 19.364 pacientes, de los cuales 11.749 eran mujeres.

El Dr. Toshi A. Furukawa nos recuerda que la Asociación Americana de Psiquiatría (APA) recomienda que cuando se prescriba un antidepresivo se inicie el tratamiento con dosis bajas y estas se vayan incrementando gradualmente hasta alcanzar la dosis terapéutica, es decir, debe maximizarse la dosis del antidepresivo si los efectos secundarios lo permiten. Pero los investigadores se preguntaron si se lograrían los mismos resultados utilizando la dosis mínima recomendada.

El resultado del estudio fue el siguiente: Para los ISRS la curva de dosis-eficacia mostró un aumento gradual entre 20 y 40 mg, pero no se vio mayor eficacia en dosis más altas. Para la Venlafaxina la dosis óptima sería de 75 a 150 mg, La dosis óptima para la Mirtazapina en función de su eficacia fue hasta 30 mg., pues las dosis mayores no se encontró que fueran más eficaces para el tratamiento de la Depresión.

En resumen, para el tratamiento de la Depresión los antidepresivos ISRS, Venlafaxina y Mirtazapina logran el equilibrio óptimo entre eficacia, tolerabilidad y aceptabilidad usando el rango más bajo de la dosis autorizada.

Finalmente recordemos que los pilares fundamentales del tratamiento de la depresión son la psicoterapia y los antidepresivos. Y señalar que, según datos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), 322 millones de personas padecen depresión en el mundo.

 

 

(Editado por la Dra. Moya Guirao)

 

 

 

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Anxiety in cancer

lazo rosa del cáncer

lazo rosa del Cáncer

Did you know that…..

According to the World Health Organization each year more than 10 million new cases are diagnosed of cancer?

In addition, the WHO foresees that by 2020 the figure of 16 million new cancer cases per year will have been reached.

It is common for people diagnosed with some type of cancer to have anxiety problems. This anxiety is usually experienced both, at the time of cancer diagnosis and throughout the treatment. There are many moments of stress because of the harshness of cancer treatment and the uncertain outcome.

It is also very important to take care of the form and amount of information that is given to the cancer patients, because the degree of anxiety is closely related to it. The more and better information is given to the patients, the better they will face their illness.

We must also point out that not only cancer patients are affected by anxiety, they can also suffer from their closest relatives who will accompany them throughout the process.

Depression can also appear in some patients at any time during treatment, be it surgical, chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

A psychotherapeutic or psychological support is advisable in almost all cases.

(Edited by Dr. María Moya Guirao, MD)

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Edith Jacobson Biography

Edith Jacobson

Edith Jacobson

Biography of Edith Jacobson

Edith Jacobson (1897-1978) was a German psychoanalyst doctor who was born into a Jewish family of doctors from Lower Silesia. She was part of the first generation of women with university education after the First World War.

This psychoanalyst was a very politically committed person. The Gestapo stopped her in October 1935. Fleeing from the Nazi threat she settled in the United States of America, where she died in 1978 (Rochester, New York). In America, Jacobson was a member of the Institute of Psychoanalysis in New York. In that institute he worked as a psychoanalyst for many years.

But back to its beginnings, Edith Jacobson, who had graduated as a doctor and worked as a pediatrician in a hospital in the German city of Heidelberg, began to be interested in Psychoanalysis as a result of knowing sexuality of the kids through his work as a pediatrician.

In 1925 Edith Jacobson entered the Psychoanalytic Institute in Berlin where he had as teachers Sándor Rado, Franz Alexander and Otto Fenichel. Jacobson performed with the latter his Didactic Analysis.

In his early work Edith Jacobson included extensive and detailed clinical material of his experience in the treatment of children with psychic problems. In these studies on child psychic pathology we can be seen a clear influence of the two great founders of psychoanalysis of children, Anna Freud and Melanie Klein.

Among the most important contributions made by Edith Jacobson deserve to mention their interesting studies on the Depression, Psychosis and the Freudian psychic instances of the Self, Id and the Super-ego.

The theories of Edith Jacobson are framed within the current developed by Marxist psychoanalysts of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute. Among these psychoanalysts were Wilhelm Reich and his wife Annie (the latter became a great friend of Edith), Otto Fenichel, Erich Fromm, etc. This group of psychoanalysts, we could say “from the left“, emphasized the importance of external reality for psychological development and the social influence in the development of neuroses.

In this line, Edith Jacobson argued that the environmental factor of reality was as important as the internal world of

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Ansiedad y memoria

curva de Yerkes-Dodson

curva de Yerkes-Dodson

Hace tiempo escribimos un post explicando como una ansiedad moderada es normal e incluso puede ser beneficiosa en ciertos casos (*), y hoy dedicamos este pequeño artículo para comentar una reciente publicación de Christopher Lee y Myra Fernandes, profesores e investigadores de la Universidad de Waterloo en Canadá.

El estudio, titulado “Emotional Encoding Context Leads to Memory Bias in Individuals with High Anxiety, ha sido publicado recientemente en la revista Brain Sciences.

Para la realización de la citada investigación se utilizó una muestra de 80 jóvenes estudiantes que respondieron a un cuestionario (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales) sobre el nivel de ansiedad experimentado en las situaciones vividas la semana anterior a la realización de esta prueba. Los investigadores excluyeron a los estudiantes que padecían ansiedad patológica.

Más tarde se pidió a los jóvenes que vieran 72 palabras en un ordenador asociadas la mitad de ellas a imágenes negativas, y la otra mitad asociadas a imágenes neutras. Finalmente los estudiantes tuvieron que recordar las palabras vistas en la pantalla de la computadora.

Conclusión: Los investigadores encontraron que los estudiantes que tenían más ansiedad (cuarenta de ellos) recordaban mejor las palabras mostradas asociadas con una imagen negativa.

 

(Editado por la Dra. Moya Guirao)

(*) Ansiedad moderada: http://psicoterapeutas.eu/la-ansiedad-moderada/

 

 

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Depressed people

Depression

Depression

Did you know…..

That in Depression is there a tendency to negative thinking, as the result of excessive abstraction and generalization?

Depressed people generalize negative events, and this leads to pessimistic anticipations and a great despair about the future. Depressed people think very negatively about themselves and the events that occur in their lives.

These patiens also do not have specific goals for their lives. They tend to think of abstract personal goals.

Several studies have also found that depressed adolescents have nonspecific personal goals, unlike adolescents who do not suffer from depression. But some studies have also shown that depressed young people can make up specific personal goals after conducting a successful psychotherapy treatment. In young people with depression, motivation, commitment and effort to achieve personal goals are very poor.

(Edited by Dr. María Moya Guirao, MD)

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